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Assessing pollution abatement policies with a case study of Ankara

The purpose of this study is to address two main areas of concern regarding the control of air pollution in developing countries. The first involves the question of how much priority to give the problem of air pollution, and the source and amount of funds to be allocated to improving air quality in countries with very limited means. The second problem concerns which methodology to use in assessing the relevance of switching to natural gas as a strategy for improving air quality. This report presents a methodology designed for use in situations where data on the state of the environment and on energy use is scarce, as in most developing countries. It requires that governments set air quality standards and apply least-cost methods of reaching those standards. The various methods of improving air quality include fuel substitution and the use of a variety of control technologies to reduce emissions; the appropriate role for natural gas is defined, therefore, within the context of overall emission control. The city of Ankara, Turkey was chosen as a test case for this study in 1992 because it met the two essential criteria--it suffered from severe air pollution, and it kept records of sulfur dioxide and particulate matter measures. Based on the results of the study, the methodology recommended requires that the following steps be taken: (1) define a set of standards for each pollutant of concern; (2) collect data on air quality; (3) draw up an inventory of major sources of pollutants; (4) prepare a base-case energy plan and calculate future emissions; (5) estimate future pollution levels; (6) explore policy measures to reduce future pollution to levels within standards; (7) estimate the emissions associated with each abatement strategy; (8) calculate the cost of abatement measures; (9) prepare a cost matrix to compare cost effectiveness of each strategy; (10) convert calculations to assess ambient air pollution resulting from these emissions; (11) conduct a sensitivity analysis; and (12) conduct a final assessment and make a decision. The study concludes that the least-cost standards method provides a useful and relatively easily applied tool that supplements cost-benefit analysis in making important political decisions. Through offering a matrix of the costs involved in meeting a range of different standards, the implications for both the country ' s energy plan and other competing claims (education, health care, defense, etc.) are made immediately obvious to policymakers, allowing them to make better-informed budget

Document Type: ESMAP Paper


Assessing pollution abatement policies with a case study of AnkaraAssessing pollution abatement policies with a case study of Ankara
[.pdf, 10553.6Kb]
(World Bank Group)

Related Topics
Education and awareness
Institution / Author
World Bank Group
Main Topics
Monitoring
Modeling
Emissions inventories
Measuring impacts
Policies and instruments
Vehicular air pollution
Industrial air pollution
Indoor air pollution
Education and awareness
Regional and global effects

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