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NATURE AND TYPE OF POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILES AND STRATEGIES FOR ITS CONTROL
G.C. Kisku, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow, India

ABSTRACT

The paper narrates the different types of vehicles based on their use, their principle mechanism of operation, evolution and milestones of vehicle development. Main differences between Petrol engines including 2 and 4 strokes and diesel engines are mentioned in terms of engine mechanism and fuel efficiency. Nature and type of fuels and prescribed standard. of Bureau of Indian Standard for petrol fuel has been mentioned. Automobiles emissions are listed and their properties and interaction with other pollutants at different environmental condition in the atmosphere have been explained. Relationship between vehicle speed and release of various toxic substances viz. particulate matter PM 10 and PM 2.5, CO, HC are given. Control measures for both engines and problems of Catalytic Converters are also discussed. Comparative study of Indian and European emission standards for discharges are done. Governmental steps to improve the fuel quality by introducing alternatives fuel e.g. Natural gas in Delhi, eliminating tetra ethyl lead from petrol, reducing sulphur content and reducing benzene additives have been discussed. Hazards associated with pollutants discharges from automobiles are briefly described. Total quantity of pollutants discharges per annum in Lucknow based on fuel consumption has been predicted. Motor Vehicles Acts related to air pollution are discussed. Precautionary measures at personal and government level are suggested. Improvement of Technology/ fuel quality/ infrastructure/ legal aspects can control pollution from automobiles.


NATURE AND TYPE OF POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILES AND STRATEGIES FOR ITS CONTROLNATURE AND TYPE OF POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILES AND STRATEGIES FOR ITS CONTROL
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