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SOURCE APPORTIONMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT FINE PARTICLES IN DELHI, MUMBAI, KOLKATA, AND CHANDIGARH
Zohir Chowdhury, Mei Zheng, Glen R. Cass, Armistead G. Russell, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Lynn G. Salmon, California Institute of Technology; Rebecca J. Sheesley and James J. Schauer, University of Wisconsin-Madison

ABSTRACT

Fine particle organic carbon in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chandigarh is speciated to quantify sources contributing to the fine particle pollution. Fifty-five organic compounds were quantified using GC/MS, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan. Annual average concentrations for four seasonal periods were determined for three of the four sites. Measured concentrations of organics, silicon, aluminum, and elemental carbon from the four sampling sites are used in a molecular marker source apportionment model to quantify the primary source contributions to the PM2.5 mass concentrations at those sites. Five sources were identified and quantified: diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, road dust, coal combustion, and biomass combustion. Important trends in the seasonal and spatial patterns of the impact of these five sources were observed. Primary emissions from fossil fuel combustion (coal, diesel, and gasoline) were responsible for about 22-33% of PM2.5 mass in Delhi, 23-29% in Mumbai, 37-70% in Kolkata, and 24% in Chandigarh. These figures can be compared to the biomass combustion contributions to ambient PM2.5 of 9-28% for Delhi, 12-21% for Mumbai, 15-31% for Kolkata, and 9% for Chandigarh. These measurements provide important information about the seasonal and spatial distribution of fine particle-phase organic compounds in Indian cities as well as quantifying source contributions leading to the fine particle air pollution in those cities.

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