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Overview of air quality management in Philippines

Air Pollution

According to a World Bank study covering four cities, which represents over a quarter of the country's urban population, the health costs of air pollution exceed US$400 billion annually. While leaded fuel has been eliminated since January 2001, total suspended particulates (TSPs) remain dangerously high.

The transport sector contributes heavily to air pollution, and poorly maintained diesel vehicles and two-stroke motorcycles dominate the streets. Many industrial sources of pollution are also located within the Metro Manila airshed, and many do not have the necessary air pollution control facilities.

Regulatory Framework

The Clean Air Act of 1999 is the country's main air pollution control law. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) are the government agencies primarily responsible for motor vehicles emissions control. DENR sets the emissions standards while DOTC enforces these standards.


  • Lack of data and systematic analyses impedes the formulation and implementation of effective action plans
  • Inter-agency cooperation has not been easy
  • Law enforcement is weak; institutional capacity must be strengthened

Kyoto Protocol

In October 2003, the Philippine Senate ratified the Kyoto Protocol.

Go to the BAQ 2004 website
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Secretariat: The World Bank & Asian Development Bank