Clean Air Initiative: GlobalClean Air Initiative: AsiaIniciativa del Aire Limpio: América LatinaClean Air Initiative: Sub-Saharan Africa
Advanced Search
Country / City
Dialogue room
Mailing List
An evaluation of the traffic and financial performance of the MRT-3 light-rail/metro line in Manila
Marius de Langen, Edwin Alzate and Hillie Talens.

This paper documents the performance of the Metro Rail Transit Line 3 (MRT-3) light rail line in Manila.

  • Capacity utilisation is around 100% in the peak,60% during the daytime and 30% in the evening hours.
  • MRT-3 has not attracted car drivers. Of MRT-3 passengers, 99% do not have their own car available for the trip. However, 27% made their trips as car passengers before.
  • The dominant user is 25–40 years (73%), middle income (66%), 52% female and 48% male. Most trips are for work, school or business (82%).
  • Travellers are very satisfied with the level of service.
  • Utilisation was highly sensitive to the tariff. Full capacity utilisation was only reached after fare reduction to just above the bus fare.
  • Fare revenue is structurally insufficient to recover costs (2002: 20%).
  • Profit on real estate development linked to MRT stations is high, due to their good accessibility. This, plus value increase of other real estate along the MRT (for the same reason) outweighs the total cost of line construction and operation.
  • MRT-3 is financially attractive for the Metro Rail Transit Corporation. The Philippine government carries all operational risk and receives a modest share of real estate revenues. Subsidy up to 2023 will probably be around 50%.

The paper is found in World Transport Policy and Practice ISSN 1352-7614 Volume 10, Number 4, 2004 at this URL:

Better Air Quality Workshops

BAQ 2004
BAQ 2003
BAQ 2002

Country / City
Metro Manila
Governance and sustainable transport in general > Rail and metros
Economic aspects > Regulation, costs, subsidies
Social aspects > Transport demand management
Talens, Hillie
Alzate, Edwin
de Langen, Marius

Secretariat: The World Bank & Asian Development Bank