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Development of Emission and Engine Testing Procedures and Standard Sidecar Design Prototype for Tricycles
Manuel Jose, Ricardo Sigua, Karl Vergel, Aura Matias, and Louis Angelo Danao. 2005. Development of Emission and Engine Testing Procedures and Standard Sidecar Design Prototype for Tricycles. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies 6:3151 – 3166


The absence of a comprehensive policy to address the problems faced by the local three-wheelers (tricycles) became obvious when the Clean Air Act was implemented in January 2003, requiring all motor vehicles to comply with the exhaust emission standards equivalent to Euro 1. The National Center for Transportation Studies was commissioned to develop standards and baseline references for motorcycles and tricycles to facilitate compliance. The objectives are to a) establish baseline information on tricycle drivers and passengers; b) develop standard configuration in the design for the conversion of motorcycle into tricycles; c) develop emission test protocol applicable to local tricycles; and, d) determine the effects of various fuel-oil mixtures for 2-stroke and 4-stroke motorcycles. A comprehensive study of tricycles and its users across Metro Manila was produced including sidecar designs and prototype, real-road test and chassis dynamometer simulation data.


standards, tricycle, emissions, air pollution
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