Measures have been taken to reduce pollution from coal burning in Beijing. For large coal-fired equipment, there has been increased monitoring of the desulphurization processes. Monitoring techniques will be changed for the 16 thousand coal-fired boilers below 20 tons, and small coal-fired burners are slowly being eradicated.
The supply of natural gas has continuously been increased to suppress the need for coal. Enhanced monitoring in large (over 20 tons) coal-fired burners are being implemented while small burners are slowly been eradicated. Usage of coal in small businesses and households are also being addressed.
Beijing’s Air Pollution Control Activities- Phase 14 (on Coal Burning):
1. Enhance treatment of coal-fired boilers
- By the end of June 2008, all coal-fired power plants should install and operate de-nitrification equipment after installing desulphurization and high-efficient dust elimination equipment.
- Stop the operation of no. 6 and 7 power generator sets of the Jingfeng Heat-Power Company by the end of April 2008.
- The coal-based boilers of the Lidu Hotel, the Beijing West Rail Station and the Beichen Heat Company which run during summer should be installed with desulphurization and dust-elimination equipment by the ened of June 2008.
- Shut down small coal-fired boilers and implement concentration heating and boiler technological improvement by the end of October 2008.
- Four districts in the Shunyi, Changping, Pinggu and Miyun counties should finish six concentration heating projects and shut down 100 small scattered coal-fired boilers. Other suburban districts and counties should accelerate concentration heating. This should be accomplished by the end of October 2008.
2. Implement stricter boiler emission standards
- Ensure compliance with the Boilers Air Pollutant Emission Standard (DB11/139-2007) by the end of June 2008.
3. Switch from small coal-fired ovens to clean energy sources in 50,000 households
- Households should be able to switch to clean energy from coal ovens by the end of October 2008: 20,000 in Dongcheng District, 20,000 in the Xicheng District; 3,000 in the Chongwen District; and 7,000 in the Xuanwu District
4. Stop direct coal-burning in urban-suburb interaction areas
- Relevant districts should organize direct coal burning activities in urban-suburban areas inside the 5th Ring Road and key areas outside the said road.
5. Enhance inspection on illegal small coal oven usages
- Relevant district governments and departments should enhance inspection on illegal coal oven usages, outside barbeques and other burning activities.
Stricter emission standards, enhanced monitoring, phasing out of old vehicles and the addition of cleaner ones are some of the major steps that have been taken by Beijing to be able to reduce the pollution from transportation. For example, Level I, II and III vehicle emission standards were carried out successively in 1999, 2002 and 2005. Beijing also gradually raised the quality of motor vehicle fuel. Level II and III fuel were sold successively in 2004 and 2005. Thousands of old buses and taxis were eliminated while natural gas buses were promoted. Beijing has more than 4,000 natural gas buses, making it the city which holds the largest natural gas bus fleet in the world. It is expected that more than 90 percent of buses will reach level III emission standards. Buses using low sulfur diesel fuel containing 50ppm were introduced by the end of April 2007.
Beijing’s Air Pollution Control Activities- Phase 14 (on Vehicular Emissions):
1. Implement new vehicle and fuel emission standards
- From March 1, 2008, all the light gasoline vehicles that are sold or registered in Beijing should comply with the national IV emission standard.
- From July 1st, heavy diesel vehicles that are used as buses or for environmental cleaning and postal services should comply with the national IV emission standard. On-board diagnostics systems with NOx monitoring capacity should also be installed.
- Oil companies should provide oil products which comply with these standards: Gasoline for Vehicle (DB11/238-2007) and Diesel for Vehicle (DB11/239-2007)
2. Accelerating the treatment and phase out of old cars
- The public transport, environment and postal services sectors should phase out 2,300 old vehicles and treat 2,600 vehicles by the end of June 2008.
- Phase out and renew 1,500 buses and 2,000 taxis by the end of December 2008
3. Recycle and treat oil gas in oil stations, fuel storage vehicles and oil storage rooms
- Oil product suppliers or operational entities should finish the oil gas recycling and treatment in their oil stations, fuel storage vehicles and oil storage rooms, and ensure that the emissions are within the standard by the end of June 2008. Operational entities which shall not be able to comply with the requirements of oil gas recycling and treatment shall be suspended
- Enhance the treatment of old heavy vehicles which are used for tourism, provincial transportation, and urban delivery services by the end of June 2008
4. Restrict high pollution-emitting vehicles
- 2002 and 2003 saw the start of more stringent checks on cars on the road, ensuring that a minimum standard is met by vehicles being operated. Vehicles that are used in construction should meet the national III emission standard, obtain green environment labeling and have transportation permits, before they travel on the 5th Ring road. Those who will fail to meet the requirements shall be treated in accordance with the relevant policies. From May 1, 2008, all vehicles used for construction which shall fail to meet the national III emission standard shall be forbidden inside 5th Ring road.
5. Forbid big cargo vehicles with excessive emissions from the road
- All the local and non-local big cargo vehicles with excessive emissions shall be forbidden from the road.
6. Enhance emissions monitoring on construction machines
- Running machines should meet the Visible Emission Restriction and Monitoring Method for Non-road Diesel Machines (DB11/184-2003)
Industrial pollution control has made great progress. Through relocation, restructuring and other means, pollution has been greatly reduced. According to national industrial policies, severe dust polluting enterprises located in the outskirts of the city have been shut down. Among them, cement kilns were completely shut down by the end of 2005. 200 more heavily polluting enterprises have ceased production or have been relocated. In July of 2006, Beijing coking plants ceased operations, reducing the amount of coal, dust and sulfur dioxide emissions by 300 million tons, 7,300 tons and 7,500 tons, respectively.
Beijing’s Air Pollution Control Activities-Phase 14 (on Industrial Emissions):
1. Shut down heavy polluting enterprises
- Heavy oil-burning production units of the Beijing Dongfang Chemical, Beijing Chemical & Engineering and Huabei Heat Power should be stopped by the end of June 2008.
- Shut down 40 high polluting and high energy-consuming enterprises by the end of December 2008.
- Enhance pollution treatment in the cement industry and implement the adjustment of enterprises with annual capacity that is lower than 200,000 tons.
2. Treat a batch of heavy polluting enterprises
- Capital Steel should reduce 4 million tons of production capacity and make efforts to reduce and treat pollution before moving out.
- Yanshan Chemical should finish the treatment of the waste gas and Chloromethane emissions of its No.2 and No.3 DCC units.
- Beijing Dongfang Chemical should finish organic waste gas burning treatment projects by the end of December 2008.
- 18 enterprises in the melting and construction materials industries should adopt pollution control measures and control organizational and non-organizational emissions.
3. Enhance organic emissions control
- Enterprises in organic, chemical, printing, furniture manufacturing and vehicle spray-paint industries should operate in a sealed condition and install waste gas cleaning facilities.
4. Treat oil gas pollution from the restaurant industry
- Restaurants and unit canteens should install oil gas cleaning facilities. Those failing to meet the requirements will be fined.
5. Implement emission standards
- Emitting enterprises should adopt strict pollution control measures to ensure compliance with the emission standards by the end of June 2008.
Construction sites and road dust pollution have been increasingly supervised. As Beijing continues to develop, strict management of the many construction sites is of major significance to air pollution control. Over the years, environmental protection requirements and management techniques have been improved. Government departments, including urban management, construction, and environmental protection strengthened law enforcement and supervision, and formed an effective scheme combining trade management, enterprise self-discipline and supervision by the masses.
Beijing’s Air Pollution Control Activities- Phase 14 (on Floating Dust):
1. Implement 100% requirement of floating dust control
- Construction units should be responsible for: controlling floating dust; implementing comprehensive monitoring of construction activities; making sure that construction activities are 100% covered, the construction ground is 100% solidified, the wheels of construction vehicles are 100% washed and that the undeveloped areas are 100% planted.
2. Finish barren ground treatment inside the 5th Ring road and in key areas outside the 5th Ring road
- Key construction sites surrounding the Olympic Gyms inside and outside the 5th Ring Road should be planted or solidified by June 2008. Those which cannot meet the above requirement should use spray to control dust.
3. Implement large-scale cleaning
- Complete cleaning the corners of the narrow roads, community houses and units, cover sand and dust packages (monthly).
4. Push the treatment of barren agricultural land forward
- All agricultural fields should be not be barren and should be covered with plantations for 3 seasons by December 2008. There should also be no floating dust throughout the year.
5. Enhance ecological protection
- Solidify the results of the construction of ecological regions in Chaoyang, Haidian, among others.
- Finish the ecological county construction in Miyun and Yanqing.
- Launch the ecological district construction in Fengtai, Fangshan, Tongzhou, Shunyi, Changping districts.
- Implement the "Environment Friendly Township" and "Ecological Village" special activities before the year ends.