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Policy framework

This section will include a Policy Guide and Manual on Urban Air Pollution: Policy Framework for Mobile Sources. Both papers are under preparation. Draft versions of the papers should be issued for review in June 2003.

The guide for policy makers will discuss the key issues and questions to consider in formulating a policy for urban air pollution from urban road transport. Specifically, it will address the crucial question of how to phase in the adoption of cleaner technology cost-effectively, and what non-technical policies are essential to maximize the chances of successful implementation of technology-based policies.

The guide will be supported by an accompanying manual to which it will refer for more detailed discussion of the technological, administrative and economic instruments that are available to developing countries. Together they are intended to assist developing countries to design cost-effective strategies to control the impact of mobile sources of urban air quality.

This section includes also relevant Policy Documents which might be helpful for the user’s own assessment of the applicability of cleaner bus, truck, and fuels options.

Related documents
  • Abuses in Fuel Market: How to Protect Consumers in Public - Bacon, Robert / Kojima, Masami
    In the fuel business, smuggling, adulteration, mislabeling and short-weighting are widespread in many developing countries.
  • Breathing Clean: Considering the Switch to Natural Gas Buses - Kojima, Masami
    In response to emerging epidemiological evidence of the toxicity of diesel vehicular emissions, there is growing interest in substituting conventional diesel with much cleaner natural gas in cities where ambient concentrations of particulate matter are markedly higher than what is internationally considered acceptable.
  • Coordinating Environment, Transport, and Energy Policies for Cleaner Air - Kojima, Masami / Lovei, Magda
    Poor urban air quality causes serious environmental health damage in many developing countries. Arriving at effective and sustainable solutions to these problems requires a broad approach that takes into account the various sources of pollution, focuses on cost-effective and feasible interventions, involves affected stakeholders in decisionmaking, and coordinates policies across multiple sectors. An important challenge is to evaluate when and how environmental considerations should be reflected in sector policies. This note illustrates these points, taking urban air pollution from transport as an example.
  • Economic Valuation of the Health Impacts of Air Pollution
    This module presents a brief overview of the methods commonly used to quantify the health impacts of air pollution and to value them. We focus on translating changes in ambient air quality into associated cases of premature mortality and morbidity and on the methods used to value these health effects. A case study Improving Air Quality in Metropolitan Mexico City: An Economic Valuation, is used to illustrate the application of these methods.
  • Improving Air Quality in Metropolitan Mexico City: An Economic Valuation - Vergara, Walter
  • Reducing Air Pollution from Urban Passenger Transport: A Framework for Policy Analysis - Heil, Mark / Pargal, Sheoli
    This paper develops a simple framework to analyze various pollution control strategies that have been used or are proposed in the urban passenger transport sector. The context is the declining quality of air in urban areas, which is among the serious problems associated with the rapid motorization of societies the world over.
  • Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policymakers in Developing Cities - Breithaupt, Manfred
  • Transport Fuels Taxes and Urban Air Quality - Bacon, Robert / Gwilliam, Kenneth G. / Kojima, Masami / Lvovsky, Keseniya
    In developing country cities, fuel use for transport is a growing contributor to air pollution and environmental health risks. One way of applying the "polluter pays " principle to transport is to adjust fuel taxes to reflect environmental externalities. But in setting tax rates on fuels, many factors need to be considered.
  • Urban Air Pollution - How Can Urban Bus Policy Reduce Air Pollution? - Akbar, Sameer / Gwilliam, Kenneth G. / Kojima, Masami
    Buses are essential to everyday life in South Asia. They affect urban air quality both directly by emitting air pollutants and indirectly by reducing the congestion and emissions caused by the many smaller vehicles which they replace.
  • Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia - Guidebook - Gronskei, Knut Erik / Hanegraaf, M.C. / Jansen, Huib / Kuik, O. J. / Larssner, Steiner / Olsthoorn, Xander A. / Oosterhuis, F.H.
  • Vehicular Air Pollution: Setting Priorities - Akbar, Sameer / Gwilliam, Kenneth G. / Kojima, Masami
    Air pollution is viewed as a serious problem in many cities in South Asia. Many city governments hold transport largely responsible and have adopted, or are considering, technological measures to reduce vehicle emission. This note outlines a framework for the appraisal and selection of appropriate measures in the sector.
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