The activities that the Initiative is supporting to achieve these goals are:
2. Case Studies
In each of the eight cities, a study on air pollution generated by motorized transport will provide background information and data on the level of air pollution, the impact on human health, its economic costs, and most affected parts of the urban area, the expected evolution over a 10 year period with and without countermeasures, and recommendations for air pollution abatement measures tailored to the technical, institutional, and operational environment of the urban transport system in each city.
3. National Seminars
Based on the conclusions and preliminary findings of the city case studies, the national authorities in each of the eight cities organize a national seminar to gather the main stakeholders: national and local authorities, transport operators, drivers, technicians, and mechanics, and NGOs and CBOs, including consumers and women associations. The seminars are designed to (a) raise awareness about the dangers of urban air pollution and possible responses, (b) debate and agree on a framework for a city action plan, and (c) identify the most appropriate agency to ensure follow-up after the seminar and carry forward elaboration and implementation of the Action Plan.
Dissemination of information will extend from the eight cities and countries involved to other Africa region countries and to potential donors. Materials distributed will include the city case studies, seminar proceedings and research results. Channels of dissemination will include print publications (working papers, technical notes) and a Clean Air Initiative Web site.
5. Action Plans
It is expected that financial support will be provided to assist cities and countries in finalizing and implementing the action plans adopted following the national seminar. When external expertise is requested in specific areas where no local experience can be identified, emphasis will be put on the transfer of technology in order to reinforce local expertise. The needs for external assistance will vary but are expected to include urban planning and land use, health issues, institutional arrangements, economic analysis, social assessment, and definition of national fuel emission standards. Such activities are part of the Urban Air Quality Management component of the Senegal Urban Mobility Improvement Project financed by the World Bank under the Urban Mobility Improvement Project approved in May 2000.
6. Research Studies
Studies might be required to determine the tradeoffs and synergies, in the African cities, between measures to reduce local pollution and those to reduce greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Such studies will need to estimate the emissions of greenhouse gases from urban transport sources, covering the full fuel-cycle and the manufacture, assembly, and operation of transport equipment. Other topics anticipated to require study include the adaptation of sustainable technologies to local conditions, the matching of country resource endowments to potential cost-effective measures, measures to decrease fuel consumption, use of climate-friendly options, and potential to develop local manufacturing.
7. Support for Unleaded Gasoline
Activities expected to be required in the phasing out of leaded gasoline in the sub-Saharan African context include (a) identification of technical options for reducing or eliminating lead in gasoline, (b) an assessment of lead phase-out impacts on the vehicle fleet; (c) the assessment of lead phase-out effects on vehicle emissions and air quality; (d) assessment of the health benefits of lead phase-out; (e) a cost-benefit analysis of the phase-out; (e) public education campaigns. Such a workprogram has been debated during a regional conference organized in Dakar in June 2001 on the phase-out of leaded gasoline (see point C).
8. Regional Assessment Seminar
An assessment seminar (FY 2003) will draw the first lessons learned, the impact of the Clean Air Initiative on national and local authorities, its leverage with other operations, the status of the action plans already identified, the problems faced, the institutional arrangements, the evolution of the legislation on urban environment, and the feasibility of complementary activities to be launched.
9. Regional Network of Experts : AFRICACLEAN
While African experts from the health, transport, and environment sectors have been working from time to time on air pollution issues, professional links between these experts have yet to be formed. Experts and interested professionals typically come forward and are first brought together through the process of preparing city case studies and organizing national seminars. The Clean Air Initiative will specifically reinforce the communication flow among these experts by facilitating exchange of information via e-mail, creating a regional professional association for clean air, and sponsoring other activities to involve more African experts and increase recognition of the multidisciplinary nature of urban air pollution problems. The set up of this network (AFRICACLEAN) has been made official at the occasion of the Dakar conference in June 2001.
10. Capacity Building
Investment in building long-term expertise is important to ensure the sustainability of the program. African experts (officials, consultants, researchers) would participate in ad hoc technical seminars and training sessions on issues such as environmental impact assessment, health impact assessment, pollution prevention, public outreach, economics of environmental decision-making, principles of environmental enforcement, and management of an environmental organization. Depending on professional needs and document availability, subscription to technical books or newspapers could also be financed.